by Remy Servis, WFU JD/MA in Bioethics Candidate ’22
Amidst the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, incarcerated people have been one of the most at-risk subgroups, contracting the virus at a rate five times higher than the national average. Due to overcrowded conditions in prisons and jails, this population has limited opportunity to effectively socially distance, and infection rates are exacerbated by squalid conditions, limited testing, and violence within correctional facilities. Incarcerated persons represent a more vulnerable sector of the population, reflecting the disparities in social determinants of health that affect groups more likely to be incarcerated: racial minorities, those with unstable housing, and those with mental illness. In particular, prisoners over the age of fifty-five experience a uniquely threatening sum of risk due to the uncontroverted finding that COVID-19 has been particularly deadly to older adults, with 80% of deaths in US occurring in patients aged sixty-five and older.
Early in the pandemic, advocates across the country began to call for the early release of incarcerated people who pose a low risk to society, including the elderly and nonviolent. Scholars highlighted how this type of release would assist with “flattening the curve” by removing volume from correctional institutions which are “notorious incubators and amplifiers of infectious diseases.” Regarding the provision of early release, North Carolina has two laws on the books: “Medical Release of Inmates”, passed in 2008 and codified at N.C. Gen. Stat. § 15A-1369, and N.C. Gen. Stat. § 148-4, which provides for state discretion in granting “Extended Limits of Confinement” (ELC). Both of these statutory options have their strengths and weaknesses, but the state has chosen to utilize its more amorphous powers under ELC to mitigate the release of select inmates. However, due to disappointingly narrow release criteria, only about 300 inmates (out of 34,000 total in state facilities) have been granted this ELC privilege. Meanwhile, 3,000 inmates, or close to 10% of the prison population, have tested positive. The ELC law, as it is currently formulated, is a lackluster response from the state of North Carolina to the threat of coronavirus in the state prison population. These ELC policies and eligibility criteria should be appropriately modified given the deadly context of this pandemic and any future virulent public health emergencies.
Continue reading “North Carolina’s Extended Limits of Confinement: Woefully Underutilized in the Face of COVID-19”
by Carley Fisher, WFU JD Candidate ’21
COVID-19 reached U.S. shores sometime early this year; the first laboratory confirmed test was discovered on January 20, 2020 and reported to the CDC two days later. To date, the number of COVID-19 cases in the United States has risen to over 8 million, with over 200,000 lives tragically lost.
The end of the disease is not yet in sight, and while countries have remained innovative in their approach to caretaking, an early concern still exists: will patients be able to obtain hospital access? This question is as important to non-COVID-19 related patients as it is to COVID-19 patients, and the issue becomes especially acute in the face of a pandemic surge.
Continue reading “Convalescing in the Era of COVID-19”
by Madison Woschkolup, WFU JD Candidate ’21
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the United States is immense, but this impact has been disproportionately felt by Black communities. In thirty-three states and the District of Columbia, Black people comprise a higher proportion of COVID-19 cases relative to the percentage of the state’s population they make up. In Maine, for example, Black people account for 21% of the state’s total COVID cases, even though only 1% of the state’s total population is Black. In comparison, in all fifty states and the District of Columbia, the percentage of each state’s total COVID cases attributable to white people remains well below the relative percentage of white people in the state. This state-by-state trend extends nationally as well. As of June 2020, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that 21.8% of COVID-19 cases in the United States were Black individuals, despite the fact that this group only represents 13% of the total population.
It is widely recognized that health outcomes of communities of color are objectively worse than those of white communities. In addition to experiencing an increased risk of contracting the virus, Black Americans are also experiencing the highest actual COVID-19 mortality rates nationwide, more than double the mortality rate of their white counterparts. As of August, 1 in 1,125 Black Americans has died from COVID-19, or 88.4 deaths per 100,000. For perspective, the mortality rate for white Americans was 40.4 deaths per 100,000. This gap only increases when the data are adjusted for age differences within the race groups.
Continue reading “The Disproportionate Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Black Americans”
by Nathalie Freeman, WFU JD/MA in Bioethics Candidate ’21
This year over half a million people in the United States are experiencing homelessness. Between 25% and 50% of these homeless people work, and during the COVID-19 pandemic, many of these individuals are serving as low-wage essential workers. Even without considering the current pandemic, individuals who consistently stay in homeless shelters, or live on the streets, have a lower life expectancy, higher rates of addiction, and more underlying health conditions. With COVID-19 sweeping the country, homeless people are more vulnerable to the virus than housed individuals due to cramped conditions in homeless shelters, lack of access to basic sanitation materials, pre-existing comorbidities, and a general lack of access to health care. Additionally, a large portion of the homeless population is elderly and already suffering from pre-existing conditions, like chronic heart or lung disease, which make them more likely to succumb to the coronavirus.
Continue reading “Homelessness and COVID-19”
By John Talbot, WFU JD/MA in Bioethics Candidate ’21
The first successful organ transplant occurred in 1954, when one twenty-three-year-old male donated his kidney to his identical twin brother. Since this first successful transplant, advances in science have allowed more widespread access to transplants, a greater variety of organs capable of transplantation, and better longevity and transport of the organs. Following the exponential growth in organ transplant capabilities since the 1950s, there was a clear need for a national regulatory structure to govern the procurement and distribution of all donated organs. In an attempt to address this issue, transplant professionals created the Southeast Organ Procurement Foundation in 1968, which subsequently developed into a fairly crude computer-based network in 1977 for sharing matching information. Understanding the need for a more uniform matching system that could be used across the nation, Congress passed the National Organ Transplant Act in 1984. This Act created the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) which was required to be operated by a non-profit under a federal contract. The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) was initially offered the contract in 1986, and continues to administer the OPTN to this day.
Continue reading “The Human Thrift Store: An Introduction Into Organ Procurement and Donation”
By Nnaemeka Obiagwu, 2021 J.D. Candidate
With the advent of the coronavirus pandemic in the United States, telemedicine has been brought to the limelight because it provides an opportunity for patients to have access to quality care remotely, particularly patients that need to be quarantined as a result of the outbreak. Given that data breaches are a critical issue for the health care industry and with telemedicine being offered online, it is understandable why patients are uncomfortable with sharing personal information with their providers. Last year, the healthcare sector saw a whopping 41.4 million patient records breached fueled by a 49 percent increase in hacking, and in the first half of 2020, 41 healthcare providers reported falling victim to ransomware.
Continue reading “Cybersecurity Concerns Impacting Telemedicine During The COVID-19 Pandemic”
By Madison Woschkolup
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the United States is immense, but this impact has been disproportionately felt by Black communities. In thirty-three states and the District of Columbia, Black people comprise a higher proportion of COVID-19 cases relative to the percentage of the state’s population they make up. In addition to experiencing an increased risk of contracting the virus, Black Americans are also experiencing the highest actual COVID-19 mortality rates nationwide, more than double the mortality rate of their white counterparts. As of August, 1 in 1,125 Black Americans has died from COVID-19, or 88.4 deaths per 100,000. For perspective, the mortality rate for white Americans was 40.4 deaths per 100,000. The pandemic has exposed, and exacerbated long-standing inequalities present in the United States.
Continue reading “The Disproportionate Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Black Americans”
By: Connor Christensen
The prices of insulin have risen to unconscionable levels in just a little over two decades. What used to be a relatively minor expense for Americans with diabetes has, for some, become an insurmountable obstacle to living a normal life, or, in some cases living at all. The purpose of this brief commentary is to address just one of the many issues attributed to the stark increase in insulin prices: patent evergreening.
People with Type I and Type II diabetes constantly depend on insulin injections to supplement their insufficient natural production of the blood-sugar regulating hormone in their pancreas. Without this hormone, a diabetic person’s life expectancy is short and riddled with many serious health complications. For many decades insulin was readily accessible and affordable for those who needed it. Recently, however, things have changed.
Continue reading “The Evergreen Forests of Insulin Patents”
John Allen Riggins*
*The playwright has included a series of Director’s Notes throughout that are designed to aid the directors’ and actors’ insight into the science and symbolism of Sequence.
THREE COUPLES, ALL OF SIMILAR AGE, ARE DOWNSTAGE LEFT, CENTER, AND RIGHT IN COMPLETE DARKNESS. A SPOTLIGHT FADES IN AND ILLUMINATES THE COUPLE STAGE LEFT. BOTH ARE LYING ON THE GROUND, AND SHE HAS HER HEAD ON HIS CHEST WHILE HOLDING AN ULTRASOUND.
(RUBBING WIFE’S STOMACH) Poor thing, he got your forehead.
And your grainy eyes! He’ll pull them off well enough though. Imagine what they’ll see, Thatch.
THE SPOTLIGHT DISAPPEARS FROM THEM AND RISES ON THE COUPLE DOWNSTAGE CENTER. THEY ARE SEATED IN CHAIRS ACROSS FROM A DOCTOR WHO HAS A PICTURE OF EDWARDS SYNDROME. THE HUSBAND HAS HIS ARM AROUND HIS WIFE AND BOTH ARE CRYING.
Continue reading “Sequence”
What Do You See?
By: Emily Burke, JD ’18, Wake Forest University
The cold surface pricked my fingers as I stretched my palms flat against the motorized table beneath me. The coolness sent a chill up my spine, stretching up from the very tips of my toes. It was when the chill spread a dull numbness in my ears that I realized how naked, how vulnerable, and how exposed I was.
I was wearing a hospital gown, laying inside a tunnel beneath a thin, white bedsheet. Away from his gaze. And yet, just as I felt the narrow x-ray beams dance across the sheet, I felt his eyes on me. As the beams skipped across my skin, my heart began to race. I closed my eyes. My brow furrowed as my fingertips pushed into the table. I was trying to escape the whiteness, the brightness of the tunnel. Just as I lifted my fingers, the blood rushed and pulsed its way back into my fingertips. I swallowed and realized my jaw was clenched. I knew I couldn’t move my hands, or any part of my body, for that matter. I desperately wanted to massage my jaw, my furrowed brow, my pulsing fingers. Instead, all I could do was lay there. Silently.
Continue reading “What Do You See?”